ARK OF THE COVENANT (Heb. €aroôn, the common name for a “chest” or “coffer”).
It was called the “ark of the covenant” (Numbers 10:33; Deuteronomy 31:26; Hebrews 9:4; etc.), because stored the Ten Commandments, and other holy artifacts; “the ark of the testimony” (Exodus 25:16, 22), the commandments being God’s testimony respecting His own holiness, and the people’s sin; “the ark of God” (1 Samuel 3:3; 4:11), as the throne of the divine presence.
As the symbol of the Lord’s presence, it was borne by the priests in advance of the host (Numbers 10:33; Deuteronomy 1:33; see also Psalm 132:8). At its presence the waters of the Jordan separated; only when it was carried to the farther shore did the waters resume their usual course (Joshua 3:11-17; 4:7, 11, 18). The Ark was carried about Jericho at the time of its downfall (Joshua 6:4-12). Very naturally, the neighboring nations, ignorant of spiritual worship, looked upon the Ark as the god of Israel (1 Samuel 4:6-7), a delusion that may have been strengthened by the figures of the cherubim upon it.
The Ark remained at Shiloh until the time of Eli, when it was carried along with the army, in the hope that it would secure victory for the Israelites against the Philistines. Who captured the Ark (1 Samuel 4:3-11); but they were glad to return it after seven months (1 Samuel 5:7). It was taken to Kiriath-jearim (1 Samuel 7:2), where it remained until the time of David. Its removal to Jerusalem was delayed three months by the death of Uzzah who carelessly handled it. Meanwhile it rested in the house of Obed-edom, from which it was taken, with greatest rejoicing, to Mt. Zion (2 Samuel 6:1-19).
When the Temple was completed, the Ark was deposited in the sanctuary (1 Kings 8:6-9). In 2 Chronicles 35:3 the Levites were directed to restore it to the Holy Place. It may have been moved to make room for the “carved image” that Manasseh placed “in the house of God” (2 Chronicles 33:7), or possibly on account of the purification and repairs of the Temple by Josiah. When the Temple was destroyed by the Babylonians the Ark was probably removed or destroyed (2 Esdras 10:21-22). Sacred chests were in use among other peoples of antiquity, and served as receptacles for the idol, or the symbol of the idol, and for sacred relics. – Unger’s Bible Dictionary
The patch follows the same design shape as the Nostromo’s from Alien 1979, contained within the arch is Weyland Yutani’s tagline Building Better Worlds then the mission and ship name Covenant. Then in the centre lies a planet, which I assume is Origae-6. There are some striking similarities with how the stars in the background of the patch line up with some parts of the constellation of Auriga. There bears some similarity in design for the Nostromo patch which also an arch, but framed by a rainbow. Its original inspiration is French Legion military buttons on uniforms. The star with rays extending out touching two planets, one encircled by rings with clouds to it’s right.
Image is taken from eBay
Rainbow, the token of the covenant which God made with Noah when he came forth from the ark that the waters should no more become a flood to destroy all flesh. The right interpretation of ( Genesis 9:13 ) seems to be that God took the rainbow, which had hitherto been but a beautiful object shining in the heavens when the suns rays fell on falling rain, and consecrated it as the sign of his love and the witness of his promise. Ecclus. 43:11. The rainbow is a symbol of Gods faithfulness and mercy. In the “rainbow around the throne,” ( Revelation 4:3 ) is seen the symbol of hope and the bright emblem of mercy and love, all the more true as a symbol because it is reflected from the storm itself. – Smith’s Bible Dictionary
Retroactively the connection between the two now holds much more meaning, making the Nostromo patch symbolic of the promise made by God to Noah. And the USCSS Covenant patch, symbolic of the container that carried sacred artefacts like the ten commandments.