Fungi: Puff Spores

 

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Puff Spores Basidiomycota Puff Ball Fungus

Illustration by Dane Hallett

1. Clostridio tetani(Clostridia tetani ) – sanaerobic pathogena (anaerobic pathogen )

2. Euniceral strains

are found on countless varieties of (the) substrate and requires acid fermentation in harsh conditions. to produce acid for its offspring

3. Once the spore has reached fertility, toxins are injected into the host’s bloodstream or lymphatic system.

If spore bacteria enter the host’s circulatory system Clostridio(Clostridia) tetani will cause a violent reaction.

4. Clostridio tetani(Clostridia tetani ) – sanaerobic pathogena (anaerobic pathogen )

Clostridio is a cone-shaped sanerobic(anaerobic) species of pathogena(pathogen) of genus Elostridium(Clostridium)

Fig. V.

During infancy the organism will not survive the presence of Eunicium, it is sensitive to heat and exhibits minor mobility.

Fig. L.

Once spore has reached fertility, toxins are injected into the host’s bloodstream of (the) lymphatic system.

Fig.M.

If spore bacteria enter the host’s circulatory system Clostridio(Clostridia) tetani will cause a violent reaction.

5. Euniceral Dane Eforedium

A. Euniceral

B. Lactate succinate

C. Chemoheterotroph

This bacterium is cultured with relative ease in most settings

Growth factors depend on Marsh negative culture quality

Euniceral is a facultatively Penile-shaped bacteria of the sub-genus Wershipsaytan that is often found in the gut lining of endotherms.

Until maturity Euniceral strains are harmless but once sexual maturity occurs it will poison its hosts.

Euniceral strains

are found on countless varieties of the substrate and requires acid fermentation in harsh conditions. to produce lactate acid for its offspring.

6. Puffball

7. Puffball

8. Puffball

*As you can see there are many spelling mistakes and in many cases, David has used variations of the words in the male form Clostridio as opposed to Clostridia. I think this is partly whoever was tasked to fill out the information in the new font making it the same across all the drawings. The errors can also be viewed as David’s malfunctioning mind from isolation.


 

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Mote Stream – Special Effects by LUMA Pictures

Two characters venture off into the forest together near a lake, when one of the characters steps on a bed of fungal growths. Spores emit into the air and form into a virus that takes a creature-like form and enter the character’s ear. To create this virus, Luma developed particle simulations that were based off the murmuration of flocks of starlings. Effects artist Omar Meradi defined this behavior and was able to establish a difference between “leaders” and “followers”. The team then created 3D volumes that contained the cluster of spores and take a threatening shape into a silhouette. Even this silhouette was designed internally with a story and concept: concept artist Nicolas Pierquin designed a model with cues taken from the facehugger alien and the underwater creatures.

To create the CG ear canal, the Luma team studied real world references of endoscopic photography and medical imaging of an ear canal. Most of the available references had a shallow depth of field, a spherical lens, a lot of distortion and a light attached to the camera. “The trick was we recreating a photoreal ear canal with a tiny camera inside, while avoiding the mundane documentary style seen to create something that looked cinematic and a part of the Alien universe”, explains Brendan.

LUMA

 



A theory about Shaw’s Death

In David’s documentation of this particular species, drawing conclusions from the factual information regarding Clostridium tetani and puffballs; I am assuming the puffballs on Planet 4 caused similar reactions to their host.

  • Painful muscular spasms that can lead to respiratory failure and, in up to 10% of cases, death. 

Once the spore has reached fertility, toxins are injected into the hosts bloodstream or lymphatic system.

If spore bacteria enters the hosts circulatory system Clostridio tetani will cause a violent reaction.

Given the puffball can cause a violent reaction, and there was no statement of ‘death’ or ‘forcible alien incubation’ then I can only assume that this species was unaffected from the pathogen drop on the city.

The Engineers had been living on the planet, demonstrating the puffballs were ‘safe’ enough to live around and not cause as much damage as they did until David tampered with them.

This experimentation shows that he was looking for an effective way to infect hosts, puffballs are triggered by touch. The Ovomorph is a more effective way to impregnate the host because it takes a longer period of gestation, this gives the xenomorph a better survival instinct compared to its neomorph predecessor.

The neomorph is violent and more animalistic, more vulnerable because it doesn’t have the patience to stalk it’s prey until it has fully matured. It’s pale outer skin can be susceptible to bullets so it is not an effective killer.

This information tells me David had experimented this with ‘someone’ or ‘something’ or simply observed. In the clip ‘The Crossing’ you can see many engineers ran for the cathedral, shielding them from the pathogen dropped on the city. How else was he able to vivisect the engineer or have any live biological items to experiment on? His other drawings show male and female engineers, most in drawn in medical illustration. Showing their morphology and biological structure.

One particular picture shows a female engineer who’s chest cavity had been cut open to access what I could only assume to be a chestburster.

That means she would have to be alive for the alien to incubate it.

Given Elizabeth’s body was dissected in the same way, I believe David had either experimented on her living body or had tried to keep her alive by repeatedly removing the alien from her body before it could burst out from her, killing her.

In his research, for the cobra lily, he writes:

The Cobra Lily grows mainly in the out world, a subservient counterpart of Shoa Khania (the wrath oak)
It’s seeds can be ground into a superb opiate
It’s curls are vast, it’s reach firm and simply stunning.

He would have had to travel out of the city to find specimens and had experimented with it to find out its effectiveness. Given his dislike of the engineers, I doubt he would have made the opiate for them to lessen their pain when being experimented on.

I can only assume he had made it for Elizabeth, given she may have been intentionally/unintentionally infected by the spores. Either before they had been tampered with, David discovers it causes a violent reaction and she did not die. But wanting to prevent her from feeling pain or looking for a cure he had stumbled onto the Cobra Lily.

Since the pathogen only reacts to Engineer and Human DNA to give a successful outcome and given the number of blood bursters on the table in the lab. Elizabeth must have played host multiple times, and suffered greatly. A bit like the punishment of the Titan Prometheus, being tied to a rock, with his liver being pecked out night after night ad infinitum, as Sir Weyland said.

“His human traits have started to overcome the synthetic ones, he’s afraid of things leaving him, so he incubates them. David doesn’t want things he loves to leave him, so he kills them and keeps them in caskets or preserved one way or the other. David killed Shaw, essentially, to prevent her from leaving him.” – Michael Fassbender, Alien: Covenant Official Book.

So Elizabeth must have been alive, unaffected by the pathogen. She had living quarters and David’s research had shown he was also investigating what food was edible on the planet apart from the wheat which the ground crew of the USCSS Covenant found.

Shaw
Elizabeth Shaw preserved, Michael Fassbender could not act with the eyes open, so during filming, he had the practical effects team close them.

 

In the movie, we can only assume he had experimented on her while she was alive in order to extend her life, this theory has been explored in my podcast with Dane Hallett and Matt Hatton, set decorators and concept artists for the movie.

“I kept her alive for quite a while. I like to think that was another testament to my creativity, although she might have disagreed. She was my most beautiful subject.” – David, Alien: Covenant Novelisation

 

“I washed this world clean as a gift to her, we could have built anew. A second Eden. But she refused. What choice did I have? She was the perfect specimen. I tried so desperately to make her more than human. Evolved. But without her cooperation, I had to salvage her parts to begin work on my masterpiece.” – David, Transmission D964ZB to Weyland-Yutani


Clostridium tetani

ps9
This micrograph depicts a group of Clostridium tetani bacteria, responsible for causing tetanus in humans By Content Providers(s): CDC – This media comes from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Public Health Image Library (PHIL), with identification number #6372. Note: Not all PHIL images are public domain; be sure to check copyright status and credit authors and content providers., Public Domain.

Clostridium is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria, which includes several significant human pathogens.[1] Examples of bacteria that can form endospores include Bacillus and Clostridium.[2]

Clostridium tetani is a rod-shaped, anaerobic species of pathogenic bacteria, of the genus Clostridium. Like other Clostridium genus species, it is Gram-positive, and its appearance on a gram stain resembles tennis rackets or drumsticks. C. tetani are found as spores in soil or in the gastrointestinal tract of animals. C. tetani produce a potent biological toxin, tetanospasmin, and is the causative agent of tetanus, a disease characterized by painful muscular tumblr_ojebln2iH71rk0k2jo2_500spasms that can lead to respiratory failure and, in up to 10% of cases, death.  Tetanus is an acute, often fatal, disease caused by an exotoxin produced by C. tetani. It is characterized by generalized rigidity and convulsive spasms of skeletal muscles, usually involving the jaw (lockjaw) and neck, then becoming generalized.


Kingdom

Bacteria 

EscherichiaColi_NIAID
By Credit: Rocky Mountain Laboratories, NIAID, NIH – NIAID: These high-resolution (300 dpi) images may be downloaded directly from this site. All the images, except specified ones from the World Health Organization (WHO), are in the public domain. For the public domain images, there is no copyright, no permission required, and no charge for their use., Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=104228

Bacteria inhabit acidic hot springs, radioactive waste, soil, water[3] and the deep portions of Earth’s crust. Bacteria can also live in symbiotic and parasitic relationships with plants and animals much like the Plagiarus praepotens and the Manumala noxhydria.


 

Phylum Firmicutes

Many types of Firmicutes produce endospores, known for their resistance to desiccation and can survive extreme conditions. They are found in various environments, and the group includes some notable pathogens.[4]

 


Class Clostridia

Clostridium_botulinum
By Content Providers: CDC – This media comes from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Public Health Image Library (PHIL), with identification number #2107. Note: Not all PHIL images are public domain; be sure to check copyright status and credit authors and content providers., Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=68204

They are obligate anaerobes and oxygen is toxic to them. The toxins produced by certain members of the genus Clostridium are among the most dangerous known.[5] Obligate anaerobes are microorganisms killed by normal atmospheric concentrations of oxygen (20.95% O2)[6][7]

 


 

Order Clostridiales

 

 


 

Family Clostridiaceae

The family of the bacterial class Clostridia, and contain the genus Clostridium. 

 

 


 

Genus Clostridium

Clostridium (sensu stricto), as well as Acetivibrio, Acidaminobacter, Alkaliphilus, Anaerobacter, Caloramator, Caloranaerobacter, Coprobacillus, Dorea, Natronincola, Oxobacter, Sarcina, Sporobacter, Thermobrachium, Thermohalobacter, and Tindallia.[8]


 

Species C. tetani


Clostridium tetani

 



Basidiomycota

Haeckel_Basimycetes
By Kunstformen der Natur (1904), plate 63: Basimycetes (see here, here, here and here), Public Domain

A puffball is a member of any of several groups of fungi in the division Basidiomycota. The distinguishing feature of all puffballs is that they do not have an open cap with spore-bearing gills. Instead, spores are produced internally, in a spheroidal fruitbody called a gasterothecium (gasteroid (‘stomach-like’) basidiocarp). The fungi are called puffballs because clouds of brown dust-like spores are emitted when the mature fruitbody bursts, or in response to impacts such as those of falling raindrops. [9]

 


Traditional Uses 

ink pot53865106_1_x
Antique Tibetan Ink Pot. Source

Puffballs were traditionally used in Tibet for making ink by burning them, grinding the ash, then putting them in water and adding glue liquid and “a nye shing ma decoction”, which, when pressed for a long time, made a black dark substance that was used as ink.[10]

 


Easter Eggs

If you didn’t spot it, one of the writings says ‘Wershipsaytan‘ as in Worship Satan.

 


References

  1. Parte, A.C. “Clostridium”. http://www.bacterio.net
  2. “endospore” at Dorland’s Medical Dictionary
  3. Fredrickson JK, Zachara JM, Balkwill DL, Kennedy D, Li SM, Kostandarithes HM, Daly MJ, Romine MF, Brockman FJ (July 2004). “Geomicrobiology of high-level nuclear waste-contaminated vadose sediments at the Hanford site, Washington state”. Applied and Environmental Microbiology70 (7): 4230–41. doi:10.1128/AEM.70.7.4230-4241.2004. PMC 444790 . PMID 15240306.
  4. “Firmicutes” at Dorland’s Medical Dictionary
  5. Baron, Samuel (1996). Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). Galveston: University of Texas Medical Branch. ISBN 0-9631172-1-1.
  6. Prescott LM, Harley JP, Klein DA (1996). Microbiology (3rd ed.). Wm. C. Brown Publishers. pp. 130–131. ISBN 0-697-29390-4.
  7. Brooks GF, Carroll KC, Butel JS, Morse SA (2007). Jawetz, Melnick & Adelberg’s Medical Microbiology (24th ed.). McGraw Hill. pp. 307–312. ISBN 0-07-128735-3.
  8. LPSN http://www.bacterio.net
  9. Hibbett, David S.; Binder, Manfred; Bischoff, Joseph F.; Blackwell, Meredith; Cannon, Paul F.; Eriksson, Ove E.; Huhndorf, Sabine; James, Timothy; Kirk, Paul M. (May 2007). “A higher-level phylogenetic classification of the Fungi”. Mycological Research. 111 (5): 509–547. doi:10.1016/j.mycres.2007.03.004. PMID 17572334.
  10. Cuppers, Christoph (1989). “On the Manufacture of Ink.” Ancient Nepal – Journal of the Department of Archaeology, Number 113, August–September 1989, p. 5.

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